Use of “and”, “or”, “not” (do not use the quotation marks)

Search item: “Colorado River”

Result: “Colorado River” (only this phrase, capitalized, exactly)

Search item: “Colorado or river”

Result: All records containing either “Colorado” or “river” (or “River” capitalized).

Examples: “Colorado River”, “Columbia River”, “every river follows”, “on the Colorado there is”, “State of Colorado”.

Search item: “Colorado or River”

Result: All records containing either “Colorado” or “River” (capitalized).

Examples: “State of Colorado”, “Colorado River”, “Columbia River”, “on the River Nile”.

Search item: “Colorado and river”

Result: All records containing both “Colorado” and “river” (or “River” capitalized) but not necessarily together.

Examples: “Colorado River”, (in two different sentences: “the river is green” and “the course of the Colorado).

Search item: “Colorado and River” (capitalized)

Result: All records containing both “Colorado” and “River” but not necessarily together.

Examples: “Colorado River”, (in two different sentences: “Colorado is a state where” and “the Yampa River flows”).

Search item: “Colorado not river”

Result: All records containing “Colorado” but records also containing the word “river” (or “River” capitalized) will be omitted.

Examples: “Rio Colorado”, “State of Colorado” (but in each case “river” or “River” does not appear anywhere in the record)

Wildcards

?

Substitutes any single alphanumeric chraracter.

Search item: ca?on

Results (for example): cañon, canon

*

Substitutes zero or more alphanumeric characters (but avoid using * as the first character in a search string).

Search item: ca*on

Results (for example): cañon, canon, canyon, carion, carillon, Callomon

Tips on diacritical marks. If you cannot type in diacritical marks, use the * and ? wildcards. Examples:

To find all spellings of “Grand Canyon” (including Cañon, Canon, or Canyon), use the phrase (without quotes) “Grand Ca*on”.

To find only “cañon” use the phrase (without quotes) “ca*on not canyon”.

To find the periodical name, “Cañon Journal”, use the phrase (without quotes) “Ca?on Journal”.

To find all records using either “Rio Colorado” or “Río Colorado” use the search phrase (without quotes) “R?o Colorado”.

To find only “Río Colorado” use the search phrase (without quotes) “R?o Colorado not Rio”.

In the following examples, the term <wildcard> including the pointed brackets and the single quotes must be used:

[ ]

Substitutes any one of the characters inside the brackets.

Search item: <wildcard>’bo[dv]ine’

Results: Bodine, bovine

{ }

Substitutes any one of a set of characters separated by a comma.

Search item: <wilidcard>’boat{s,er,ers,ing}’

Results: boats, boater, boaters, boating

^

Substitutes any character that is not in the set.

Search item: <wildcard>’b[^eu]t’

Results: bat, bit [but not “bet” or “but”]

-

Substitutes a range of single characters.

Search item: <wildcard>’b[e-o]t’

Results (for example): bet, bit, BLT [but not “bat” or “but”]

 

Return to Search


[ SEARCH | TABLE OF CONTENTS | ABOUT THE BIBLIOGRAPHY ]
[ COPYRIGHT AND CREDITS | GCA HOMEPAGE ]